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1933 Chronokey Chronomedia index
Numbers after entries link to the list of references.


links and notes
  Cultural highlights | Predictions made this year  
January 25  Low definition television station W9XK, University of Iowa, opens as the first US educational television service.  
January  General Theatres Corporation is formed in Australia by merging the film-buying and exhibition interests of Greater Union and Hoyts.  
January  Radio Luxembourg begins transmissions. The plan is to cater for Belgian, Dutch, English, French and German audiences, with less frequent programmes for Italy, Switzerland, Czechoslovakia and Poland.  
January  Baird promises the BBC a 240-line television system by the second week of February.  
January 30  The Lone Ranger starts as a radio serial in the US, produced by George Washington Trendle and devised by him with Fran Striker. It is famous for its opening speech ('…and a hearty hi-ho Silver!) delivered over The William Tell Overture. It runs until 1954 September 3. > 1936
February  All German films—except Mädchen in Uniform—are withdrawn from New York cinemas as Adolf Hitler becomes German Chancellor. [0036]  
February 10  Postal Telegraph Company of New York introduces the singing telegram.  
February 14  Speaking clock (Horloge parlante) introduced in Paris on ODEon 84 00, designed for the PTT by M. Esclangon, director of the Paris Observatory, to whose chronometers the system is synchronised.  
March 12  President Franklin D Roosevelt gives the first of his radio 'fireside chats' (a term coined by journalist Robert Trout), eight days after his inauguration.  
March 15  Adeline Gelée dances her farewell ballet performance with Anton Dolin at the BBC television studio for transmission to Copenhagen, Denmark.  
March 15  Radio Luxembourg begins test transmissions in English on 1190m LW from a 200 kW transmitter. > June 4
March 18  Radio service is started in Mozambique by Radio Clube de Moçambique.  
April 20  German Ministry of the Interior, under Nazi control since the elections of 5 March, revokes approval of Der Blaue Engel. > May 9
April  Concert by Leopold Stokowski is relayed from Philadelphia to Constitutional Hall in Washington DC using three separate landline channels feeding three giant loudspeakers; the dynamic range is 75dB, the frequency range 40Hz-15kHz, with reproduced sound 10dB louder than the original.  
April  By now the International Broadcasting Company (IBC) has sponsored programmes transmitted from Radio Normandy (6½ on weekdays,12 hours on Sundays), Radio Paris (7½ hours on Sundays), Radio Côte d'Azur (one hour on Sundays) and Radio Ljubljana.  
May 9  Ufa renounces its rights in Der Blaue Engel, effectively banning the film. Another film, Bombs—Ufa Cabaret Film no 7, that includes extracts is also banned.  
May 24  Country singer Jimmie Rodgers makes the last recordings of his seven-year career in New York, two days before his death from tuberculosis at the age of 35.  
May  Daily national radio broadcasting begins in Canada.  
May  Radio Luxembourg organises its transmissions on a daily basis to different territories: Italy on Mondays, Belgium on Tuesdays, Luxembourg on Wednesdays, France on Fridays and Saturdays, UK on Sundays.  
June 4  English service of Radio Luxembourg begins, broadcasting at 17.00-24.00 on Sunday evenings only, when the BBC is transmitting religious and other sombre programmes. Luxembourg's programmes are recorded on 16-inch 78rpm discs in London, shipped to Brussels and on by train to Luxembourg. Initially the programmes are supplied by the International Broadcasting Company. Luxembourg
December 3
IBC
1936
June 6  First drive-in movie theatre is opened on a 10-acre site off Wilson Boulevard, Camden, NJ by garage-owner Richard Hollingshead with 40 ft x 30 ft screen and 400-car capacity arranged in semi-circular rows. Opening film: Wife Beware. Hollingshead had shown films on his gas station forecourt the previous year and patented the idea of the ‘automobile theatre’ See also 1945
June 24  Norsk Rikskringkasting (NRK) is established as Norway’s national public broadcasting service.  
July 1  Start of a regular radio service by Norsk Rikskringkasting (NRK).  
July 28  First female BBC wireless announcer, Sheila Barrett, appears on air.  
July  V K Zworykin publicly announces his ‘ikonoscope’ cathode ray transmitting tube in a technical paper.  
August 3  First Mickey Mouse watch goes on sale in the US at $2.50 (or $2.75?). A Mickey Mouse clock sells for $1.50.  
August  Fernseh again uses the occasion of the Berlin Radio Show to demonstrate an intermediate film television system with 120-line resolution, using a scanning disc rotating at 3,000 rpm. It also shows a new large-screen television system, in which a receiver records the incoming image onto standard 35mm film. Signals modulate a beam of light as it passes through a Kerr cell and is then dissected by a scanning disc containing 90 hexagonal holes and rotating at 3,000 rpm. At 25 fps this produces a 180-line image. The film is processed and fed to a conventional theatre projector, which produces a screen image measuring 10ft x 13 ft. There is a time delay of 20 seconds between image reception and projection on the screen. < 1932
> 1934
August  BBC conducts its first television audience research. quotation
September  BBC ends its exclusive television contract with Baird.  
September 25  Cowboy silent film star Tom Mix appears in the first of his own shows on NBC radio; the series continues until June 1950.  
October 12  On its first day of release at Radio City Music Hall in New York, Alexander Korda’s London Films production of The Private Life of Henry VIII sets a world record for a single day’s box office revenue of $18,400. The film’s cash cost was £60,000, excluding deferred payments and participation.  
October 29  Radio Luxembourg begins regular English-language transmissions on Sundays.  
October  Conference for the Distribution of Educational Films is held by the League of Nations in Geneva. [0039]  
December 3  Radio Luxembourg inaugurates daily English-language transmissions from 15:30, funded by advertising and sponsorship.  
•  US gross cinema revenue is down to $480m; Hollywood studios make a combined net loss of $55m.  
•  World film production: US 547, UK 169, France 158, USSR 44.  
•  Associated British Picture Corporation (ABPC) is formed as a holding company for ABC, Pathé Pictures, Wardour Films, British International Pictures and British Instructional Films.  
•  UK’s Associated Radio Pictures Company becomes Associated Talking Pictures.  
•  After a period of intermittent use, Whitehall Studios at Elstree is refurbished. [0019]  
•  Worton Hall Studios at Isleworth, west London is bought by J W Almond and Edward Gourdeau who, during the following year, refurbish it and instal Western Electric sound recording. [0019]  
•  An all-metal radio tube is made by the Marconiphone Company.  
•  Baird Company makes 208 television transmissions during the year. It opens premises at Crystal Palace, Sydenham in south London, close to the main BBC radio transmitter. Baird has his own private laboratory at 3 Crescent Wood Road, Sydenham.  
•  The Scophony Company takes premises in Dean Street, Soho, London.  
•  BBC forms a Recorded Programmes Section.  
•  Bell Telephone in the US transmits stereophonic music.  
•  British Film Institute is founded. Among its first governors is the novelist John Buchan.  
•  John Grierson’s documentary unit moves to the General Post Office.  
•  New film law is passed in Denmark. Production companies are now allowed to own cinemas. > 1938
•  Under the new Italian film quota law, Italian cinemas must show one Italian film for every three foreign films.
Quotas and levies
•  Association of Cine Technicians (ACT) is formed in UK by a group of workers at Shepherds Bush Studios in London. > 1956
•  Alexander Korda’s The Private Life of Henry VIII costs £93,710 and earns over £500,000 internationally. Its success inspires British producers to aim expensive ‘quality’ projects at the US market, requiring higher-risk forms of financing.  
•  First Persian-language film is Duktare Lur, produced by Ardeshir Irani for Imperial Film Company See also 1931 March 14
•  First Indian film made in English, bilingually with Hindi, is Karma (Destiny), directed by Himansu Rai as a co-production between his company and UK’s IBB.  
•  A film archive is founded in Sweden by Bengt Idestam Almquist. < 1913
•  At the Century of Progress Exhibition in Chicago, Western Electric demonstrates a ‘voice mirror’ endless-loop magnetic tape recorder in a demonstration called ‘Hear Your Own Voice’.  
•  Plastic magnetic tape is manufactured in Ludwigshafen, Germany by Badische Anilin- und Sodafabrik (BASF).  
•  Radio service starts in Sierra Leone.  
•  Fernseh AG demonstrates a continuously working intermediate film large-screen projection receiver. The system uses a continuous 70m loop of film which is exposed with an aperture disc and Kerr cell before being processed, projected, washed, dried, coated and re-exposed. The endless cycle takes six to seven hours to complete and gives a picture 3m x 4m.  
•  Edwin Howard Armstrong takes out a patent on the frequency modulation (FM) system of radio broadcasting. > 1934
•  Textophone wire recorder is introduced by C Lorenz Company and bought in large quantities by the Nazis.  
•  Radio Pictorial, ‘the all-family radio paper’, commences publication in UK to give details of Continental radio programmes and discs played.  
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