Individual media Reference department
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1965 Chronokey Chronomedia index
Numbers after entries link to the list of references.

links and notes
  Cultural highlights | Predictions made this year  
January 4  CBS buys the Fender Guitar Company for $13m.  
January 30  Independent Television’s coverage of the state funeral of Sir Winston Churchill is the largest ever, using 45 live cameras.  
January  King Radio pirate station goes on the air from the former Radio Invicta installation at Red Sands Tower in the Thames Estuary. > September 25
February 8  Ban on UK television advertising of cigarettes is announced by health minister Kenneth Robinson. > February
February 27  Dutch coalition cabinet resigns because of its inability to agree a new broadcasting structure and legislation.  
February  Television services start in Mauritius and Senegal. Television service start dates
February  Cigarette advertising is banned on UK television with effect from August 1.  
March 23  First successful two-man manoeuvrable US space flight, Gemini III.  
March 24  Television pictures are transmitted from the moon by Ranger 9, which crash lands on the surface.  
March  BBC announces a 5m deficit.  
March  Ampex introduces its fixed-head videotape recorder VR-303, designed for non-technical users, quarter-inch tape runs at 100 ips and gives 50 minutes’ recording.  
April 19  WINS in New York City becomes the first news radio station.  
April  Electronovision makes Harlow, using its eponymous process to produce an electronic motion picture for theatrical release, in England.  
April 6  Early BirdIntelsat 1 (Early Bird), the first geostationary communications satellite for commercial use, is launched. Click on picture for more
April 23  Molniya-1 satellite is launched by USSR into geostationary orbit, the first Soviet active real-time satellite. Once established it is used for television relays between Moscow and Vladivostok, a distance of 6,200 miles.  
April 26  Channel 4 Television (later Rede Globo) begins transmissions in Brazil.  
May 2  Early Bird carries the first transatlantic television programme linking nine countries.  
May 13  The Rolling Stones record Satisfaction.  
May 17  First transatlantic colour television transmission is made by NBC from UK to US.  
May 17  Dolby Laboratories is founded, specialising in audio noise reduction.  
May 24  Test transmissions of PAL colour television start in UK.  
May  Of 510 stations broadcasting on medium waveband radio frequencies, only 208 have been authorised under the 1948 Copenhagen Convention.  
June 28  Early Bird satellite goes into commercial service. Intended to have a life of only 18 months, it continues in use for almost four years.
June  Television services start in Ghana and Saudi Arabia.  
June  Leicester University announces that it is to establish a mass communications research department; the Independent Television Authority is to provide 250,000 over five years to the Television Research Committee. Shortly afterwards, the University of Leeds announces that it will have a similar unit opening in the autumn.  
July  First live transatlantic television commercial, for the Daily Mail newspaper, is broadcast in the UK.  
July  MVR of California demonstrates a single-frame video disc machine capable of recording 600 still frames or 20 seconds of action for immediate replay.  
July 15  Still photographs of the surface of Mars are sent back to Earth from the Mariner IV spacecraft.  
July  US firm Westinghouse announces Phonovid system for recording and playback of still pictures and sound on a television screen from an ordinary home record player.  
July  The Beatles’ film soundtrack album Help! is the first album in US history to have advance orders of a million copies. In the UK the album sells 270,000 copies in the first week.  
July 31  Last cigarette commercial, 60 seconds for Rothman International, is shown on UK television before the ban. > 1971
August 1  UK television licence fee is increased from 4 to 5, less than two years since the last increase, and the radio licence from 1 to 1 5s (1.25). Radio licence fee
TV licence fee
August 16  The Beatles’ concert before 56,000 fans at Shea Stadium, New York—for which they are paid a $160,000 fee—is filmed as a television special.  
August  MVR video disc machine VDR-210CF built to CBS specifications is used for instant replays on CBS coverage of an American football game.  
August  Sony markets the first home-use videotape recorder CV-2000 (CV for Consumer Video).
The quest for home video
September 25  Pirate station King Radio is renamed Radio 390.  
September  Radio Essex pirate station goes on the air from Knock John Tower in the Thames Estuary. > 1966
September  Television service starts in Paraguay. Television service start dates
September  CBS television network in US begins screenings of recent feature films.  
October  Television services start in New Caledonia and Surinam. Television service start dates
October  Committee chaired by Dr Brynmor Jones, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Hull, considering the use of audio-visual media in higher education recommends greater use of closed circuit television.  
October  One of the two weekly episodes of Granada Television’s soap opera Coronation Street does not reach the Top 20 ratings.  
November 8  BBC Television decides not to screen The War Game, Peter Watkins’ deliberately ‘shocking’ film about nuclear war.  
November 13  Critic Kenneth Tynan uses the word ‘fuck’ in a conversation with Robert Robinson on the BBC3 magazine programme.  
November 14  ITV network transmission of the Royal Variety Performance achieves the highest ever UK television audience (22.65m). Comedian Ken Dodd introduces stars including singers Tom Jones and Cilla Black and magician David Nixon.  
November 26  First French satellite, AST, is launched.  
November  Experimental transmissions of SECAM colour television are conducted via the Molniya-1 satellite between Paris and Moscow.  
December 20  Independent Television Authority's transmitter at Belmont on the Lincolnshire Wolds comes into operation, initially to carry programmes from Anglia Television. [From 1974 it carries Yorkshire Television programmes.] At 1,265 feet high it is still (2008) the tallest free-standing structure in the European Union.  
December 22  Transmitter of Radio Mil in the Dominican Republic is blown up.  
  First UK ‘twin’ cinema—Nottingham Odeon—is opened.  
  Arriflex BLArriflex BL is the first self-blimped (sound-proofed) camera from Arnold & Richter.  
  Kodak Super 8 cameraSuper 8 amateur motion picture film format introduced by Eastman Kodak.  
  The biblical epic film The Greatest Story Ever Told is filmed with an aspect ratio of 2.75:1—probably the largest ever used for a commercial release.  
  Television extends around Australia: stations open in Adelaide (SAS-10), Brisbane (TVQ-0) and Perth (STW-9); a third commercial station opens in Sydney (TEN-10), establishing the long-surviving pattern of three commercial networks: Seven, Nine and Ten.  
  Indian television service begins regular daily boradcasts, still only in Delhi. > 1972
  3M introduces the first colour low-noise videotape, Scotch Brand 399, which remains the industry standard for five years.  
  Illinois Institute of Technology proposes a system of multi-track longitudinal video recording with the tape direction reversed at the end of each track. A prototype machine is built by Collaro-Magnavox of Essex, UK.
The quest for home video
  Matsushita introduces a compact half-inch industrial videotape recorder to match the Sony CV series.  
  Sony introduces the first monochrome half-inch tape Video Rover portapak—used almost immediately by New York video artist Nam June Paik.  
  German consumer electronics firm Loewe announces plans to market the Optacord 600 home entertainment centre—a combined television receiver and videotape recorder.
The quest for home video: Loewe Optacord 600
  Wesgrove home video recorder is developed in the UK (based on the Telcan). Outwardly resembling a Ferrograph audio recorder, it employs -inch tape running at 90, 120 or 150 ips and giving up to 30 minutes' recording time on 11-inch reels. A do-it-yourself kit, VKR-500, goes on sale for 97 10s (97.50).
The quest for home video
  Pioneer in Japan develops the transistor audio amplifier.  
  Introduction of BBC World Service.  
  Television service starts in Ghana and a television experiment in Senegal. Television service start dates
  Community Television and Western Microwave, the Montana-based cable television operations with six systems and 12,550 subscribers, relocate to Denver, Colorado. > 1968
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Page updated 29 June 2009
David Fisher