Patents for a wax disc/cylinder gramophone are granted to Chichester Bell, Charles Sumner Tainter and Alexander Graham Bell. Their improvement on Edisons original phonograph is called a graphophone. What is lacks in sound volume compared with Edisons tin-foil cylinders, it more than gains in clarity and reduced surface noise. Although more suitable for listening through ear-tubes, it also allows for greater recording time per cylinder by using a narrower groove pitch. It can be powered by foot-treddles or an electric motor, resulting in a more consistent pitch.