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1855 Chronokey Chronomedia index
Numbers after entries link to the list of references.

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•  J W Griswold introduces the Tintype photographic process in the USA. A development from the Ambrotype, wet collodion emulsion is coated on a sheet of black enamelled tinplate. The process is also known as the Ferrotype. When later improved as a dry plate process incorporated into special cameras with a developing and fixing compartment, with a complete processing cycle of less than a minute, it becomes popular for instant open-air portrait photography at seaside resorts.  
June 29  First edition of British newspaper The Daily Telegraph.  
•  Manchester Guardian newspaper, founded as a weekly in 1821, becomes a daily.  
September 8  Dr J M Taupenot reports his development of a dry collodion photographic plate.  
•  James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) announces the principle of tri-chromatic colour photography.  
•  Collotype and carbon-print photographic technique is introduced by Alphonse Louis Poitevin.  
•  Englishman Roger Fenton (1819-1869) takes over 350 glass-plate negatives of the Crimean War, including the first ever photographs of soldiers in hand-to-hand combat.  
•  Penny-a-copy stamp duty on newspapers is abolished in Britain.  
•  German emigré Ottmar Mergenthaler builds a prototype Linotype type composing machine in the US. Depressing keys places moulds of those character into a line, against which a molten lead alloy ('hot metal') is injected to form a line of type See also 1886
•  Illustrated London News publishes the first of its Christmas special editions with a front cover in colour. Its weekly circulation has now reached 130,000 copies.  
•  Le Journal pour Tous, a French entertainment magazine, is founded by Louis Hachette.  
1856 Chronokey  
August 18  US Copyright Act is extended to include dramatic works. > 1865
September 1  Dr Hill Norris of Birmingham, patents dry collodion photographic plates.  
•  Cellulose nitrate is invented accidentally by Christian Schönbein (1799-1868), who also discovered ozone in 1839.  
•  London Stereoscopic Company has already sold 500,000 viewers and many more image cards. > 1878
•  Englishman Thomas Skaife is arrested when using a pistol-shaped camera—the first ever of this design—to photograph Queen Victoria.  
•  Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung newspaper is first published.  
1857 Chronokey  
March 25  Edouard-Léon Scott de Martinville (Léon Scott) is granted French patent number 19,457 for his 'Phonautograph' cylinder recorder, which records lateral movements of a vibrating stylus via a membrane on the lampblacked surface of paper wrapped around a rotating cylinder. The device goes into production for several years and is sold for use in laboratory measurement and analysis of sounds. There is no means of playing back recordings. [0026b] > 2008
•  British patents are granted to Professor J T Way for a mercury arc lamp, which is demonstrated in 1860.  
•  Work starts on laying a transatlantic telegraph cable, using HMS Agamemnon and USS Niagara steamships to carry the 3,000 miles of cable. After the cable snaps twice, the attempt is deferred until the following year.  
1858 Chronokey  
June 10  Mid 19th century cable-laying shipSecond attempt to lay a transatlantic telegraph cable is eventually successful, after three cable breakages.  
August 2  First US mail boxes—already in use in Belgium—are installed in New York and Boston.  
August 5, 2:45am  First telegraph message by undersea cable is sent between Trinity Bay, Newfoundland and Valentia, Ireland. The project's supervising engineer, Charles Bright, is knighted for his work; the engineer on HMS Agamemnon is William Thomson (later Lord Kelvin). The rate of transmission is about four words a minute.  
August 13  Queen Victoria in England and President James Buchanan in the USA exchange telegraph messages via the new transatlantic cable.  
October 25  Already weakening signals over the new transatlantic telegraph cable cease altogether. The cable is not replaced until 1866.  
•  Agency to collect and distribute foreign news is set up in London by Julius Reuter.  
•  James Ambrose Cutting develops a technique for lithographic printing of images onto paper from photographic negatives.  
  The first part of Littré's dictionary of the French language is published. > 1863
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Page updated 25 August 2008
© David Fisher